Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Carpet of Iran and how it is categorized

Persian carpet designs and its decorative drawings, and most importantly their fundamental and maybe their most mysterious concepts, are among the specialty carpets of Iran, which have escaped over the last few decades.

Regarding the proper classification of Iranian carpet weaving, as well as its fundamental foundations, it has not been done so much over the last few years. Gradually, studies have been carried out especially by Iranian experts and researchers who unfortunately still do not have many fans. Rood to present a new world of scientific-artistic classification-the way of Iran's carpet.

Due to many of these studies, in some cases, the ciphering and symbolism of Persian carpets have become apparent, and the results have, in addition to other reasons, added to the Persian carpet art values, before addressing the new issues that have been categorized in recent years. Carpets of Iran are considered and also a review of Western experts' ideas about carpet maps of Iran, introducing an old classification of Iranian carpet designs that lasts more than two decades and it can be said today The use of carpet designers and manufacturers is also commonly used in schools and colleges as well Iranian carpet designs are original classification.

In this classification, regardless of the reasons for the formation and emergence of plans and roles and even the fines used in the carpet, only according to the type of arrays and designs, as well as imitation forms, and even according to the type of division The text of the carpet and the location of the shapes and images in them to categorize the carpets of Iran and then, with the analogy of all designs of other carpets and attention to the common issue of design in each carpet with the classification, the so-called all designs of Iran's carpet in This listing has been incorporated. Here we are familiar with this category.

Based on this classification, Iranian carpet designs are categorized into 19 main categories and each one is divided into several smaller branches:

Group 1 - Islamic Art Projects
All designs that are inspired by the designs and decorative forms of their buildings, tiles and structures are in this group. Of course, carpet designers have made some changes to some of the designs of these designs in accordance with their own taste, but the structure and similarity of the design of the carpet with the original design of the building have been completely preserved.
The most famous designs of this group are:
Dome of Shaykh Lotfollah Mosque, Imamzadeh Sharroogh, Imam Mosque dome, Persepolis Takht Bostan Mosque of Jamef Isfahan and ...

Group 2 - Shah Abbasi designs
The basis of all Shah Abbasi designs is based on the use of the famous flower of Shah Abbasi in this plan. In these designs, the flowers of Shah Abbasi, along with the cutaways and sometimes their combination with the Slavic, offer a variety of carpet designs. Types of designs of this group include: Lachak and Beregh Shah Abbasi, Afshin Shah Abbasi, Shah Abbasi Tree, Shah Abbasi Sheikh Safi, Shah Abbasi and others ...

Group 3 - Slavic designs
The main theme of this project is based on well-organized and well-considered rounds of Slavic tribes. Since the Slavic is of a variety, it can be classified according to its type and form. The most elaborate design, Slalom is the Torpedo World. In this type of slavic is divided into two branches and a kind of jaw-shaped dragon creates. Different types of slavic designs include: Slamming, Slimifan, Slavic, Lechak and Torang

Group 4- Adaptation plans
It is said that most of the designs of this group are very similar to the carpet designs of the border regions of Iran and neighboring countries and even other countries, and for this reason they are called adaptations, such as the so-called "Caucasian" and "Gobellini"

Group 5 - Flip Flops
In this design, all the carpet patterns and drawings are perfectly connected and in such a way that the painter does not seem to have a paper from the beginning of the project until the end of the pen and has a continuous relationship between the different parts, in simple terms As the name suggests, all the flowers and leaves and claws in the design are scattered in the text of the carpet. Flipchart designs are designed in such a way that none of the flowers and leaves are symmetrical and there are no principles of symmetry. Different types of designs include:
Flip-flopper, Fluffy animal, Afshan Khataei and ...

Group 6 - Conjunctive designs
Its original design is such that throughout the carpet, the length of the carpet and the width to the regular parts are tightened and each part joins by lines or claws to the adjacent area, thus combining these parts and the clause They are the whole plot. The main facades of this group are the following: Alasia, Aldehyde, Grammar, Milk and Sugar, Strawberry, Glaz, Mina Khani and ...

Group 7 - Bethlehem designs
All of the designs of this group are based on the use of Bateh Jagh, and they cover various types of decorating the text and the rim of the carpet with Bateh Jacks. Different types of fur coat designs, each of which are in the same way, are Beth Meary, Beth Cutie, Bateh Qalamkar, Beth Kurdistan and ...

Group 8 - Tree designs
In the scheme of this group, small trees and shrubs, especially individually, form the original composition and are combined with other components. The most prominent designs of this group are the green tree, and even the animal.

Group 9 - Turkmen plans
Turkmen designs are all in the group of geometric designs and are woven mentally. The most famous Turkmen projects in Iran that are named in this group are Ghazal Gaz, Spoon, Akhal and ...

Group 12 - Bricks (Adhesives)
The carpet text in these designs is divided into different parts or frames that are regularly arranged side by side and decorated in each frame with different flowers and leaves. The most famous designs are: Bakhtiar's and Qarani's frame

Group 13 - Potted designs
The main feature of this design is the presence of one or more vases of different sizes that cover the whole carpet text. But most potted designs have a large flower on one side of the carpet, whose branches of flowers cover the whole carpet text. The most famous flower designs are:
Flowering a thousand flowers, a vase of mahrabi, a flower of Zelda Al-Astani

Group 14 - Fish plans together
The design of the fish is one of the oldest and most popular Iranian carpet designs. This design is often in the form of a knot, and the weaver repeats the same knot in the width and width of the carpet. In this plan, or in the form of a pond, a dish is displayed in the form of a quill with four leaves - the fish around it.

Fish designs are famous in different parts of Iran. The most important types are:
Farahan fish, Hibiscus fish, Kurdistan fish and Pisces fish

Group 15 - Alphabets
The original design of this group is based on the altar. The same place in the mosques is the place of the prayers of the Imam of the congregation. In these designs, they often cover the altar with decorations such as candles, pots, and even small shrubs, and sometimes show the two sides of the altar with large columns with the ceiling of the altar on it. Types of designs of this group are:
Mahandra mahrami, pottery altar, altar tree

Group 16 - Privilege Plans
In this scheme, the entire text of the carpet is divided in a longitudinal direction into several parallel rows, and is decorated with patterns such as baye jute, varieties of slalom or cutaways, and other flowers and leaves. In other words, the text of the carpet is in the form of stripes, the marquee feathers are the most famous design of this group.

Group 17 - Geometric designs
As its name implies, all the designs of this group are geometrically and angularly formed. The most important types of geometric designs are:
Geometric Plain, Geometric Shapes, Geometric Khatam Shiraz, Geometric Lachak, Bergamot and Geometric Bass

Group 18 - Native and tribal designs
These designs are generally woven by nomads of Iran, and most of the paintings and decorations are inspired by the carpenters' mind. In these designs, the signification is not meaningful, and this particular feature and the simplicity of motifs are one of the main elements of beauty in this group. The carpet designs of the Qashqai tribes, Shahsun, Baluch and ... are in this group.

Group 19 - Consolidated designs
The designs of this group have been developing over time and with the integration of different designs, and dozens of Weibull's hundreds of types can be found among different regions of Iran. Some compilations are of great interest for the beautiful and perfect combination of different designs. But some of them are due to the abnormal combining of several designs. Various types of compilation schemes can be mentioned, such as Lecca and Combined bergamot, Flower compilation, Flower compilation, Geometric compilation ...

What was described was, in fact, a simple and old classification of Iranian carpet designs, which is now used by many designers and even carpet experts. A number of changes have been made in this classification and expanded the group to 20 to 25 groups.

Others have already referred to the so-called more scientific method and divided the main groups into two or three original designs.

They considered a group to be inspired by nature, and the second group is considered to be designs that have been the main cause of their creation, artistic creativity, the so-called human creations, such as the famous historical buildings, nomadic designs, designs that The names of the cities have been renowned, and consolidated designs, then all the designs already mentioned, are listed below each of these two groups.

But regardless of the division, most of them are affected by the same main groups mentioned, and each one in another way has tried to present the same old classification in a new way, which is why in naming There are no significant differences between the original plans and the sub-groups.

Undoubtedly, the rooting and tracking of the reasons for the birth and development of Iranian carpet designs, both in terms of formulation and in terms of drawings and drawings, is the best way to classify and also name all carpet designs.

So far, few studies have been conducted by various experts, both Iranian and non-Iranian, but some of these studies have not had satisfactory results. Majority of these studies have also been carried out by non-Iranian individuals who are not familiar with the history and culture of Iran, and therefore the results of their studies have been misguided in many cases.

Some who also follow the theory of the origins of Turkish and non-Iranian carpets have also done some research and deduction that completely distorts the whole identity of Iranian carpet designs. How many years have been heard about the birthplace of carpet designs? Most of the views point to two main ideas. One is known as the "East to West" theory, according to which the initial alphabet was transmitted by the Central Asian Turkmens to Iranian women, Anatolia and the Caucasus. The second opinion is in the opposite direction of the first theory.

That is, from the "west to the east", according to this belief, the ancestors originated from Anatolia and spread rapidly throughout the East. Accordingly, even a group of researchers who advocate the theory of the origin of Turkish carpets, have initiated the studies of the Turkish carpets of Iran and other handicrafts such as Golim. They have begun their studies of the works of very far-ranging so-called "no-frills" of their opinions.

One of these works dates back to the history of the New Stone Age in the Shetland Houyog region of Turkey, located in the south of Konya, and the fans of the Turkish origin of Gharrah worked on these works. A well-equipped group of archaeologists, geologists, researchers and university professors under the auspices of James Melart studied the works for a long time and developed their results in detail in four volumes of the book, and eventually made Turkey a carpet cradle Weaving and the origin of many motifs were also linked to it, and even called "Shetl Hugo" as the first carpet weaving center in Turkey, and even mentioning Iran was not mentioned, and the authors of the books mentioned for many reasons the footprints Declared fallen. For example, to test the origin of the Turkish handmade, they examined the word of the wallet. We know that the Turks call "Killim".

They followed the word in their literature, and since the Turkish literature was empty in this case, they used Persian literature. They referred to Ferdowsi's poetry, and other poets of the Ghaznavi era, and infer that the purpose of these poets was from Klimem, Kilim, and as a result of the eruption of the Turkish word, so the origin of this handmade was also Turkey. But most importantly, they rebuilt the designs of the Huhev chalet walls and brought similarities between the modern designs and designs of Turkey, and have achieved their desired results.

In general, until the eighties and the middle of the 1970s, there was not much interest in examining the origin of the plans, and most studies did not take precedence over the early days of Islam, and many believe that the origin of all Plans should be considered from the time of Islam and introduce the term Islamic art. It's only over the past 20 years that some carpenters have come up with other studies with their studies. Dr Siroos Parham, in a critique of such a kind, examines the experience and analysis of Western practices.

"The hasty quest for most Western carpet craftsmen in decoding the roots of Iranian carpets and opening the spell of combining the complex lines of Islam and Khatai (which seems to be empty of any meaning and concept, and according to Huxi," Life like the design and role of Iranian carpet : Beautiful, but meaningless "), a long story, which for some reason has not made any difference so far, and only one in two others have fallen into a rut.

The most fundamental cause of failure is the alienation of the vast majority of Western carpet craftsmen from Iranian civilization and culture, which, like other artifacts, has grown over the centuries and often thousands, from the flaws and traces of this civilization and culture. An attempt was made to measure and reveal the unfamiliar neologist's thoughts of simplicity, which originated from the belief in the supremacy of Western civilization and worldview.

Consequently, the keys to the Eastern Carpet instead of the depths of the ancient civilization of the Middle East were searched in the wake of the new ideas of the West. Research in the evolution of the symbolism of the west, replaced and excavated in the codified, symbolic and mythological thoughts of the Orient, and the eastern symbols were compared to the Western symbolic concepts.

It was thus thought that the inspirational willow line, which was called "the fagots" in the majority of the western people, was considered as an essential element, and the sadness and mournfulness of the carpets that this was called "mourning carpet", and they were right to cover the grave And the mourning is woven! It was also at this early stage that the triangular images of the head and neck of the abstract animals were called the "Greek Key" and "Hook", and the four middle arms of the carpets of the Persian carp were considered "Crab" and "Ratil" !

The second stage of the Kundu Kav was initiated by researchers who eventually found that the key to the mysteries of the East can not be found in the West's culture. But according to the melanoz al-Din's tale, which loses its key to a dark place in the alley, it is followed by a bright corner "because it is brighter."

They also led the way closer to the brightest, and the Asia Minor, then Central Asia, was not the same as the carpet weaving, which has been the source of the carpet weaving before the Safavid era. (Pan-Turkic companions, of course, were hands-on).

The third stage began when several researches, more profound and wider, were required in the Oriental culture to become closer to the origin of these mysterious designs. Because the Indian land was closer to the West than the European colonial history, and more familiar with the Indian subcontinent, they were euphoric in light, and they went so far on the journey that they came to China and the Buddhas, many designs and roles Which Iranian artists and craftsmen had promoted to the Indian era during the nineteenth century AH, and then along with the monarch of Gurkani in the middle of the tenth century, was promoted to Mongolia, and developed by the Gurkani kings.

But the fourth stage of "spellbinding" was founded in a special research space that was closer to historical realities, since it relied on extensive Islamic studies. Since rugs, such as Pazirik rugs, Achaemenid, all the samples that were available, were woven after Islam, all designs and carpet weaving roots in the light of Islamic thoughts and teachings were given to the shrubs. The research achievement of this stage was very difficult, and yet it was a flaw that took everything in the history of Islam, you said that carpet weaving appeared after Islam, and before that it was nothing.

The author adds that the arrangement of these four stages is not prioritized, and sometimes two or three stages are simultaneously realized and the beginning phase has continued to persist in circles and publications from the early Christian centuries to the present day. . »

Sirus Parham, in reviewing the book of Iranian carpets, by Michael Hillman, who considers it the fifth book ever published by the Islamic geoscientists in the field of Independence, and specifically on Persian carpets, is in the study of the fourth and fifth chapters of this book, which, respectively, The titles of "Symbolism in the Design and Role of Contemporary Iranian Carpets" and "Rugs of Iran and the Iranian Society" are as follows:
"At the beginning of the fourth season, Michael Hill once again dismisses this old theory, which, as far back as decades ago, was considered as an artifact of craftsmanship and consumption of craftsmanship and its place below artwork.

With logical reasoning and with the advent of such theorists, such as Eric Schroeder and Seyyed Hussein Nasr, he argues that "Iranian carpets, albeit with an abstract nature, are based on the motive of ornamental and artifacts," the expression and presentation of a Special culture and special worldliness "which, after Islam, are more and more symbolic in nature and inevitably, the complexity of the design lines and the abundance of the elements is not an end in itself, but what is called the" regular disturbance "of repetition of the essential elements is the achievement of unity. Plurality

Then, relying on the theory of famous Iranian scholar Richard Etinghaven about Iranian arts, he describes and defines the tradition of Iranian carpet design based on three characteristics of "coloring power" and "abstraction" and "aspiration". The overcoming of colors and flora in the design of Iranian carpets is a sign of the "willfulness" of people whose environment is most dry and empty. It is right to say that Iranian-Iranian, rural or urban-type carpets have the effect of endless efforts by people who want to "immortalize the" fleeting reality of colorful spring ".

It is also possible that the attraction of order and rationality in the design and role of Iran's carpets may well be pointed out to the importance and importance of these traits in the face of people whose life has undergone turbulence and chaos in history through history. . Thus, the symbolism and symbolization of Iranian carpet from the point of view of Hillman is more about the aspect of human symbolism than the symbolism of one another. In the sequel to the fourth chapter of his book, Hillman expands his findings on the symbolism and symbolism of Iranian carpet in a small amount in historical volume and covers all dimensions of Islamic civilization and culture, and most of all architecture.

The second entry in this chapter is the link between the design and the role of Islamic carpentry and decorative motifs. In the light of this, one can find an answer to the question of how to symbolize some of the carpets' motifs. The author considers the author's answer to the decoding of the implied symbolic and symbolic elements that the architecture of religious buildings (mosques, monuments and ziargah) is important to them, and "inspired by many carpet weaving designs". Because in the mosque, the courtyard, the nursery and its halls it does not have any effect on the simulation of human face or stature "or something that affects religious people in the eyes of the people of the West"

    The symbolization of Islamic monuments may be ambiguous but also obscure in the wind for those who are calling for distinct symbols of "symbolic and explicit symbolism."

When it comes to the explicit use of the symbolic language of the church symbolism and Christianity, we find that the flowers and foliage of Islam and Islamic tusks of Islamic monuments and Islamic carpets are another language and another goal, which is the embodiment of Ferdows-Byrne.

It is such that the general view of the expansion of the Slavic tectonics of tiles and carpets is paradise and sees the kingdom of the kingdom in front of them. The author concludes that many Iranian carpets are no more than an attempt to flourish gills and gardens, and it is intended for everyone to flourish the ideal gardens of the gardens on Earth and the earth. "

As to how the patterns of Iranian carpet were formed, especially those described in the previous lines of Hillman's statement on the notion of an ideal garden on the ground and among the Iranian carpet, there were also discussions by Kurt Erdman in his famous book "Seventy Years of the Carpet of the East "Said.
But for the first time, Dr. Ali Hassouri studied these Iranian motifs more precisely in Iranian rugs, and from there he was able to reveal the nature of the Lachak, Berghane and Hunter drawings, which are the foundations of Iran's carpet.
"A group of Iranian historical carpets specifically and specifically and clearly and in a different category implicitly imagine a garden plan, the original Iranian name for these roles is Golestan, due to its prevalence in the old days, in Turkey It's also called gulistan.

In the Safavid period, apparently, it is also referred to as a grasshopper. There is an inscription on this Safavid carpet, one of which is the following: The role of Golzler is shameful. Unfortunately, most of the contemporary translators and authors, a translation from English, French, and German, call it a garden scheme, which is not beautiful either. As we will see, it can be called Ferdos, Paliz and the like. . From the earliest scholars who paid attention to this, Arthur Aphyam Pope should be named, seeking to find the bases of the Iranian design, first of all, to the plan of gardens and the Iranian idea of ​​the garden of Pardus, which Golestan Minavi Is noticed.

Garden thought can not be separated from the concept of Ferdows, because Ferdos is a giant garden with more and more enduring beauty and charm. Ferdows Gardens is one of the most basic concepts in all Iranian cultures and always has a central position in Iranians' thoughts and feelings.

Ferdows, as its root implies, is an enclosed garden, with a series of fences, a fence that is taller and thicker. (Usually seven fences) so that Ahriman can not find it. The frequent edges, especially the narrow, distinct border of the Persian carpet, are the same fronted walls of Ferdows. Ferdos has a blue spring.

Elderly - eternal, so that water always flows there and is never disconnected. In Ferdows, wild and wild animals and plants are the best of all, and without the need, without harming the devil and death, a happy and immortal life. They spend For this reason, it has ponds, where fish and blue birds live.

Water movement in Ferdos and basically the design of this garden has been geometric, meaning that rectangular or square networks were created by water jets. In the main, there were four streams and ponds, so that the flow of water would be a grid of ears (squares or rectangles) and watercolors of the same kind and probably that if the reservoirs were centered on the model, six-leafed gardens It appeared, so that on the face of each pond, twenty-four shared gardens with four other ponds emerged.

This suggests that the twelve-part pattern based on Iranian divisions is probably in the garden. Beside the first inner wall of the garden was a blue water (in the grid), and in fact the entire garden surface was covered by atmospheric networks. People in the areas around the Lake Van today in the north and to the Mediterranean Sea in the west to visualize this Golestan, not only their living environment, cities and towns, but also gardens like Ferdows imagined that an important spring or branch There was a great river to it, and it was uniquely seventh of a fence that was one of the most solid, the broader and taller, and its unbelievable width, such as sixty arsh (gaz), but the walls of five to ten ordinary gardens Was . This fence was not to prevent the enemy from penetrating, which could not even have a wall-hungry wall of ten feet, but also to stay away from the devil's ghost.

The fountain of water or the river within Ferdows constructed a network that was described. In Ferdows, animals, especially wildlife, fish and birds were slaughtered of animals.

Of course, the fish with water and birds came into such a safe and harmful area as the ground Ferdows were also sacred and kept harsh. Types of trees and plants, especially flowers, were planted in them, and found exactly the shape of a golestan or a garden with grass and a regular, well-ordered tree, with irrigation network and ways to walk and walk. Characterization of Ferdows and some of these characteristics has been mentioned in many works. "
So far, we have become acquainted with a few of the works and thoughts of some Western thinkers about the nature of the carpet roots in Iran, and along with it, we became acquainted with the scholarly ideas of Iranian scholars.
Here, considering what the Minoan and Ferdows Gardens were said to be, we look at these gardens on the Iranian carpet and how other designs are created.

In the following, introducing and reviewing several new essays in carpet roles of Iran that were conducted by Iranian scholars, we briefly describe some of the role of the motifs as well. However, it is not possible to provide all these comments in this brief.

Golestan designs
In this role Dr. Ali Hassouri says: "One of the maps of Iran's carpet depicts a garden that basically matches the map of Ferdows, as described in the preceding line. The oldest description of such a map came from Islamic histories, and it describes the carpet that was woven for the Tiffosen palace and thought Golestani. There were a variety of jewels and gold and wire in this carpet.

Most of the remaining Golestan carpets are woven from the Safavid period, especially one which is one of the northwestern carpets of Iran, and has a Golestan map with a few (about seven) margins of flowers It has a large margin, usually floral, a tree with a flower, a navel and a text that the irrigation network and several pools (ponds) divide it into several basic elements (four, six, eight, and so on). Each episode has six, and sometimes four, segments with six (or twelve or twenty four) arrows.

The motion of water in the stream is shown with wave and blue lines, and there are fish and birds in the stream. It is to be seen how the role of the Garden of Minnie on the carpet has come. Obviously, this map has evolved over the course of history, and especially from the 12th century AH (eighteenth century), new and different narratives have emerged.
Now beside the Iranian carpet (and under the influence of it in the carpets of the world) and in the margins, stripes or narrow lines, sometimes there is only one row of knots in the carpet weaving in the west of Iran that they are water or path. Which is a reminder of Ferrand's irrigation water's side of the waterway and the way that apparently existed alongside all the gardens. The number of remaining Golestan rugs in the world's museums, collections and markets, which have been identified so far, is about twenty.

The Golestan map, as it was said, is an image of Ferdows, and therefore at least the second millennium BC, which was not included in the imagination of any of the old scholars, including Arturoup, because they did not believe that weaving carpets Art is the bronze statue.

As even today, many scholars who consider themselves as an initiative of the nomads and did not pay attention to Pazirik before the BCE. If the Pazirik carpet discovered in the north of Altai, which dates back to about 400 BC, has a few margins, including a wide margin, this has only been possible under the influence of Iranian culture, as its roles (Niloofar Blue, riding Persian and Griffin) is an Iranian and, in the words of its discoverer, Rudenko, reminds Persepolis.

What are we going to do with the Golestan Gardens Grid? Each garden should be in a square or rectangular shape with a margin. Such a map in Iran is called adobe. Particularly the kind that is commonly used in four unpublished and then Bakhtiari can be a direct summary of Golestan's map. Surviving this map is common in western Iran, which is a cradle of ancient Iranian civilization and a special tradition in knitting, it is not strange. The ancient brickwork of the four imperfect, the most intrusive, suggests that the relic is a Golestan map and, along with the changing beliefs, has been completely decorated with native colors. Even the famous vegetable map in Kerman, in another way, is a reminder of the heavenly Ferdows and the gardens of the earth. »

In this way, a large group of Iranian carpet designs can be placed in the Golestan Maps Group. Some of the designs of Baluchi Khorasat Rugs, various types of Yalmay designs in Fars and Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari, and even the famous role of Lechak and Tramj, are self-titled Golestan's role, which is being explored through scientific findings. .

Patchwork and bergamot
As it is from the old carpet design, the old Iranian gardens and its design on a clay have several ponds, linked to by waterways. The garden or its design was characterized by regular geometric forms of the four corners, six caverns, rhizomes, and the like, which had a relationship between them. In a large number of Iranian carpets, for example, the Turkmens of Sistani, Baluchi, Kurdish and Lori, the carpet text is taken up by a large number of ponds, clay and frames, all of which are the relics of the same pillars.

This map is also featured in a large number of urban carpet designs, which often include names such as banners, scrolls, trinkets, and more. But there are no more in these ponds, flowers and leaves, slaves, Shah Abbasi, bird, hunting and the like. In fact, ancient ponds have given their place to numerous gardens, and this is an important change in Iran's carpet that has converted a simple pool into the garden, which can be much more sophisticated. In nomadic and rural carpets, they have diminished the size of the pools and decorated them, and filled the length of the carpet in older designs with two or three rows of ponds and in new designs with a row of ponds.

As a result of this work, there have been emergencies that sometimes pursue and interconnect up to seven bergans. The most famous of these maps are three bergamots, which are found almost all over Iran. In some of these maps, including in the Khamseh region, several months have been adapted to the famous fish map, they have entered these basins. It is likely that the same ancient fish in the pool are merged with the fish special fishing plan. Also, other types of Iranian carpet arches have been decorated with eight flowers, such as rose flowers, etc., which has a cosmetic aspect and does not have a symbolic character like a fish.

The arrays of the ditches have changed over and over as far as the tribal walnut has reached its address. These signs may be from ancient signs and at least Sassanid era or ethnic indications that are not affected by the ancient signs.

To empty or to accumulate and make more beautiful dams, there are many other roles around the signs, which are very numerous. There has been another transformation in urban maps. In these maps, like rural carpets, the number of ponds has been reduced, but this has been done in a different way.

Moreover, the transformation has not had a consistent form, but has happened in a number of ways. In the heart of Azerbaijan, such as rural and nomadic carpets, only three basins (bergamot) remain and these ponds are separated. At the very least, the two sides of the dock are so marginalized that they have to be halved, that is, from two bergamot sides, only two halfbranthers remain. In the next stage of the evolution, each of the two half-bergamots is divided into two parts, each one going to a corner. There are four lakes made by Sentan, and in this way a map of Lechak Bereg is found. Which is very common in Iranian rugs.

In another transformation in the urban and rural maps, only one dock or a lake was left, and this single dock was so enlarged that it took an important part of the text of the carpet and left only four lacquers. In the part of Iran, this large national dock is called a dynasty. Because this great pond made the text of the carpet so simple, it was necessary to think about it.

In a return trip three small ponds and then two more and finally a large pond were placed there. In this way, the map of Lechak and Bereg has been provided. This has not happened suddenly, even over the course of fifty or one hundred years, but rather a result of the experience and experience of the generations. Nevertheless, the famous map of Lechak and Bereg is found in Iran at a time when our hands do not reach it, because the oldest example of this belongs to the Safavid period.

The Safavid designers have mapped the Lachaq and Beregh in various shapes so that their interest and the taste of the subsequent professors on their work remain treasures for us, and now there are types of larch and bergamot, Other titles, such as Lachak and Beregan Slavic, Lachak and Beregh Shah Abbasi, Lachak and Beregan, and ... famous.

Thus, at least in Golestan's maps and its other extensions, we are familiar with the phenomena of Iranian art, which were formed before the birth of Christ, and therefore the relatively old and well-known theory of the effect of the book's volume on the map of Lachak and Beregan is not very correct does not have .

In fact, the story is a picture of the ballast, after Lachak and Bergh on the woven, later in the makeup of the book cover, and even on wood, metal, and in other arts. It should be said that if the combination of larch and bergamot is more visible on the covers of the book and is also available from its old examples, it is probably due to the numerous and scattered examples of books in Iran and in other neighboring countries.

Perhaps the reason for the more application of this design on the cover of the book and other similar cases also makes it possible that its implementation by brush and other means of drawing or highlighting on any surface is far easier than putting it on the carpet Therefore, the transfer of this role to the knot carpet has the requirements that, with the advancement of texture techniques, it is possible, and in any case the basic pattern has undoubtedly been from the same Golestan map.

Persian carpet, Slavic designs

Hunting drafts (sometimes hunting)
According to the historical data of Ferdowsi until the Achaemenid period, they remained sacred, protected and protected. In the sixth century BC, a clan in western Iran came to power, which was more inclined to believe in eastern Iran, and preferred the same god as Zoroastrianism, the Almighty God. The Achaemenids did not believe in such a Ferdowsi, especially its land, and Ferdowsi, a very large land of flowers, plants, trees, and animals, found the most suitable place for hunting. They hunted their holy gardens. Hunting maps have also been found here, and Arthur Pope's reference to Ferdowsi's pursuit of being in his book is inadequate for the same story.

In the ancient and original hunting scenes, for example, in the Safavid times, the hunting scene is such that the kingdom is clearly hunted, that is, the shah has a crown and the other, usually the kings of the ancient times. The hunters, the servants and even the women, the cooks are all the elements that should have been present in a royal hunt. In new hunts, perhaps under the influence of miniature, a hunting scene is a mountainous scene, although such a scene could have been a part of the ancient Ferdows. Safavi hunting, for example, Ghiyat al-Din Jami's Baft carpet in the Milan Museum

The hunting scene is shown in the Lachak and Bereg model, which suggests that Lechak and Beregan, as we said, are an evolution from the ancient Golestan maps and accepted the same pattern as the mother's plan (Golestan) accepted. (Figure 85) There are precise works of ancient Golestan maps or the reflection of the realities of ancient Ferdows in the ancient hunts that refer to one or two of them:
You have seen the role of the milk attack on cattle in Persepolis and other Iranian antiquities. There is a role for genuine hunting, where lion has usually attacked a cow. In newer examples, milk has been changed to leopard or tiger.

Perhaps this has been done to create diversity. This role, called "catch and stick", also reminds of the famous ancient archeological map, as well as the types of animals in the ancient Ferdows, and in fact confirms the Achaemenid originality of the predator's influence.

Another is that in these hunters we usually see the king in the hunting scene, but if the number of hunters is more than one person, all of which includes garments, ornaments, and hats or royal crowns, usually One sharper, in the middle of the scene, with more and more arrangement, depicting the king and the princes or courtiers and close relatives of the royal family in the hunting scene. Currently, none of the hunting carpets sometimes resembles much of their original examples, and they have come down with the decay of the carpet industry.

A look at the history and history of hunting and the occasional history of Achaemenid and Sassanid Iran (with emphasis on some hunting motifs), it can be said that hunting is the life span of mankind, and this is the only profession that humanity has been attached to from the moment it was born up to now. Undoubtedly, Koch has been the source of human survival and progression to other stages.

The predator, hunted everywhere, went to Iran's plateau in the 10th millennium BC. He encountered various landslides in this land, and then settled and settled. Iranians have a long history of hunting and predation.

Searching for this place brings us to history. Although the documentation of this field is limited to some references to books and essays or works from carvings and carvings of past ages, it is not enough for an investigative and analytical study. For this reason, losing a clear image and hunting in Iran needs a lot of resources and resources. However, it is safe to say that the interest and attachment of Iranians to hunting and hunting has played a decisive role in Iranian culture and life.

The Iranian interest in hunting was so much that they tried to find the source and the beginning of many basic things like cultivation, and attribute it to a personality. On this basis, it was believed that Kiomars was the first human being with animals and his troops were accompanied by a variety of predatory animals such as wolf, tiger, leopard and milk, and he used them to fight against their enemies.

"Ferdowsi wondered: it was not known until the time of Zahak making the Goshtin stews. At this time, Ahriman, for the sake of familiarizing Zohak with his pleasure and preparing him for subsequent slaughter, from Quebec meat, lamb, chicken and beef, for the first time, pleasant stews with seasonings of saffron and rose water and Make a lean musk that was hard to come by.

   It is not abundant that breeding time
    That's less bad than stew
    Quebec stew and white seed
    Make a great hope

Undoubtedly, Ferdowsi's Shahnameh is one of the most reliable and richest works among all the documents that show the interest of Iranians in hunting and hunting. In this immortal effect, in the form of stretching stories, hunting, predatory techniques, and the customs of the time, and the tools and instruments used to hunt, is well-ordered.

The Achaemenids also considered hunting the most suitable school for education, and the true teacher for learning the techniques of war, magic, tolerance, endurance, learning the order of the children and youth, and cultivating their children from school. They did not regard the animals as sacred and believed that the pursuit of a powerful animal such as milk would transfer the power and force of that animal to the predator.

Basically, hunting was one of the glories of the king, and it was the reason for his authority and magnitude, and according to Ferdowsi, "it was a worthy work of the princes," and the king had to go on to continue the kingdom in various ways, including hunting, To prove. Many evidences confirm the credibility of this promise. The special stigma attached to Darius, which is reserved at the British Museum, portrays him on a hunting lion's will. The king is archered in the eye of a lion standing opposite the chariot, and another shot hunted under the horse's chariot. On top of the image of Forouhar and on the sides of that palm tree, which is the royal tree.

In Persepolis, they have found the role of a Shah in drowning milk. In the kingdom of Achaemenids, Shahini had been raised from the golds that were raised on the spear.

These objects and other objects that have shaped their animal image are not only the reason why the Achaemenid kings are dealing with animals. But their interest and dependence on these animals. This interest and attachment after 500 years passed to the Sassanians who considered themselves the heirs of the Achaemenids, and spread so far as to form the major activity and entertainment of the Sassanid kings and elders.

Christine Sen says: "In the Parthian society, a noble man was a warrior and a rider who was hunting for his time in war. »
In addition to kings and elders, hunting with other classes was also important. "Hurudot writes in this regard:" Parents from the age of 5 to the age of 20 learn only three things: horse riding, shooting and righteousness. »
Xenophon says: "Children go to primary school to read through. They learn how to enforce justice, honesty, moderation, obey the rulers and order in eating, drinking, condemning, spear and assembling. At a young age, they taught them to do general work and protect the king's palace. ... »

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