Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Carpet design over the time

Research is one of the most fundamental and fundamental factors in developing a human system. Today, due to the limitation of the facilities and the lack of time, the most benefit from the lowest capital in the shortest time is the most important goal of any society and system, and it has been proven that this will not be achieved except through fundamental and fundamental research. In every sector. In our growing society, the capital that is abundantly found and its use and gain is not and should not be beneficial, the carpet industry is. Art - an industry that has suffered from some extremes and even death suddenly.


A group has captured it in the old traditional context, and the crackdown on this framework is believed to be a betrayal of Iranian origin, and a group of blind and hasty attempts to match Iran's carpet with world markets. However, the best way to solve the Iranian carpet problem is to find the weaknesses and find a solution to strengthen it, and this itself needs extensive and specialized research.


Here is an opportunity to look at the design of Iran's carpet, which is one of the fundamental factors of art in the carpet industry, with a view to promoting the culture of carpet research.


This is a treatise that has been ordered by the Handicraft Carpet Research Center of Iran and in cooperation with Iran Handicraft Organization, perhaps it is a tweezers to those who are awake. Here I need to know that I am from the director of the handicraft of Hamedan Province, Mr. Mohammad Molabagi Thanks for their sincere guidance and encouragement. Thanks to the attitude of nature and everything that is there, we see that God has created everyone in perfect beauty and in his own place and has not diminished anything.



The enormous design of the beautiful creation world, a plan that has no diminution, is a beautiful design that manages to speak with human beings and informs man of the endless power of God, and man, this Ashraf of the creatures of God and this masterpiece of creation also in the direction The spirit of God who was blown in it creates creation. Because we look good around ourselves, we notice the different creatures of mankind, each of which appears in a particular design and, since human beings are beautiful, they try to create beautiful designs in their own environment, and not only in appearance but also in Your spiritual life.



Among the drawings, which have both a beautiful appearance and an intricate spiritual aspect, are the designs in Iranian noble carpets that have been featured on this page thousands of years ago by Iranian entertainers and the encyclopaedia itself is one of the most beautiful designs of the world with a variety of The breadth of thoughts and thoughts of men who were familiar with the carpet throughout history, were made from the first carpets made with the leaves of the trees, and the beautiful silky carpets and the color of the thirty and one-thousandth stories.



The world of carpet design is not a region and a country and a culture, but it is a world of different cultures and traditions, each of which is emerging in some way on the vast scene of the carpet. Carpet designs and designs not only decorate houses and halls, but also narrate the stories and national legends that include the arts, culture, traditions and customs of an area. In general, it can be said that the roles of the carpet language are a carpet and without them the carpet is dead.

Chapter One:
Part One: The Nature of the Drawings
Our environment has different shapes and designs, each of which in a conceptual way, or expressing a particular subject. The conceptual form is an extensive and inclusive concept that covers every imaginable object, from the appearance of the objects to the words, figures, letters, and signs that each of us in a way takes our minds to a specific concept. For example, the word "water", which takes our minds into fluidity, thirst, current, or circle shape, which implies completeness, closeness, and so on. In general, it can be said that every form of a sign is a sign that brings up a distinct concept and signs are twofold; symbolic and non-symbolic. When we want to represent the concept of a tree, we can call it a word tree, with its specific sign and form • Identify, but does the notion of love, friendship, thinking, and so forth, which have no external aspect, can be traced back to the concept? This is where the "symbol" comes to our aid and makes sense of love.


Professor Gustavewg writes in The Man and His Symbols: "When a man encounters difficulties in incorporating certain concepts in a sign, he becomes symbolized by the fact that he symbolizes the power of his expression." Signs are the forms of a contract that human beings throughout history Has created.



H is the eighth letter of the Latin letters, which plays a special role in every word, why this figure and sign is chosen as the eighth letter of the Latin letters, it is not clear that it is important that we in the past have taken it from The past has been accepted and accepted.



Symbols are a common concept in all cultures and civilizations because they represent the appearance of the bodies, but the symbol is rooted in the culture and common sense of a civilization in every culture has a certain meaning and concept, and if some symbols in different cultures mean Because they share the same concept in those cultures. For example, the "dragon" in Iranian culture is a symbol of evil and evil spirit, and in the Chinese culture is a sacred symbol of power and purity. On the other hand, "Beteh Jeghee" is also a symbol of fish, and the symbol of the servant is curved, so it can be said that the place is the intersection of two different cultures. The inspiration of language is the expression of every culture and civilization rooted in the history of that civilization.

Part Two: First Plans
By studying the designs and paintings found in prehistoric caves, we begin with the artistic endearing of humans, often by imitation of nature and surroundings, and with the help of their subconscious nature, they have created original and abstract paintings. These designs are more religious in nature. And satisfies the nature of the worshiper of man, who, in his paintings, is trying to overcome nature and his enemies in his paintings, drawing images of animals that are hunted by humans shows that they are superior to Stronger than other creatures. In the designs that the early humans left behind, we do not see the decorative and aesthetic aspect, and this later became the artist's goal.



In the first place, he considered the applied aspect of the theorem and used design as a means of expressing thoughts, thoughts, customs and religions; it was the design of a device for the connection between human beings who, in their evolutionary path, led to the invention of the line. Design A living language that brings to light the artist's inner emotions and feelings, and allows him to easily communicate with other humans. His designers lay on the walls of the caves, and then on his many handicrafts, including pottery, instruments and Carved life appliances and also on its carpets and pillars, and in this way, in a world of design and role, Danny One full of different designs and colors.


Part Three: Traditional Design
By hearing the traditional designation, the first thing to come to mind is decorative designs with a combination of Khatami and flowers of Shahabasi along with Slymi and ....



There are no doubt that motifs are part of traditional designs, but traditional designs are not limited to just a few elements or a few specific motifs. Traditionally, traditional design includes designs and drawings that represent the culture, customs, and traditions commonplace in the community. This category, like many other things of a civilization, changes over time and changes in the culture and customs of that society, and takes on a new face that embraces old traditions. Traditional design is both spiritual and functional. Both the appearance and the appearance. Spiritually incorporating all the symbols and signs that express a particular conception and are, in essence, part of the culture and tradition of a society, and it is apparently aesthetically pleasing and full of artistic artistry who, using the art of design and elegance, In it, it adds a lot of beautiful and admirable work.

second chapter:
Part One: Designing the Carpet of Iran over time
The artistic creativity and creativity of any community of roots and inspiration from the traditions of life and its historical and peripheral backgrounds, and often this talent is crystallized in one or more disciplines. Among the arts that have come to fruition in this land over time, and the taste of the Iranian artist in its area is an opportunity to manifest the art of carpet weaving. The reason for this flourishing and excellence in addition to the intrinsic characteristics of Iranians, such as art and religion, must be considered in the abundance of carpet materials, such as high quality wool and various varieties of colorful plants.



The carpet has faced ups and downs as a manifestation of human thought and thought, influenced by its sense of novelty during its history. Occasionally, with the thoughtful leisure of artists and the environment created for the development of their arts, they have reached their limits, and sometimes the damage caused by the natural and abnormal misfortunes on the body of society has led it to the period of impregnation. Suspicion of the use of the lagoon comes when a man thinks of sheltering his own comfort. The texture of all types of underlayment has also been associated with livestock breeding and its use for wool, and since human beings have enjoyed the importance of woolen fibers, they have realized the importance of wool fibers and, in time, they are used in various ways through carpet weaving and carpet weaving. Is. This time, unquestionably, coincided with the change of human life from the stage of savage and bisexuality in geese to nomadic, family and tribal livelihoods, and his intellectual uplift, and mankind after he felt the need for this change to provide his own comfort.



The above article was a quote from the history of Iran's carpet with an article of the same name written by Mr. Mahmoud Najibzadeh Zahmat. The question now arises: does the history of carpet design coincide with the start of the production of the first man-made carpets? As mentioned in the previous sections, the primary people after having succeeded in inventing the design. They moved their designs from the inside and the walls of the caves to their other handicrafts, including their pillars, and it might be said that the origin of the design of the carpet began from the same period; on the other hand, man-made man-made stairs made of premature materials were made of rug There is no initial example, and those early designs are just on the walls of the caves and some of the inexhaustible tools and gadgets. By discovering the Pazirik carpet, a new window to the past of the world's carpet, including the design of the carpet, opened, the Pazirik carpet is the oldest example of carpet. Which has an organized and pre-ordered plan She puts a lot of clarity on the history of carpet design. Due to the skill and skill involved in designing this carpet, the carpet design history of Iran (Iran) - due to the similarity of many pazirik carpets with designs of Persepolis and other Iranian designs - For years and even centuries ago, the level of the texture of this carpet is returned. By examining different designs of carpets in recent times, we draw attention to the fact that many of these designs are the same as those on the walls and walls of historical monuments or on pottery and Other appliances are used, and because carpets are a product that over time, it can be used to evolve designs. He followed the carpet on the walls and walls of the tiles and pottery. Therefore, it is even possible to study the period before the Pazirik carpet - the 4th and 5th centuries - by examining the designs and designs remaining on the remaining works of those periods. During the pre-Aryan period before and after The establishment of the Achaemenid civilization, small local governments and civilizations in different parts of the Iranian plateau, most of which have the local and native features of that civilization.

But with the advent of the great Achaemenid civilization that ranged from the west to the east of the world, a new cultural mix was created from many subcultures borrowed from other civilizations, due to continuous wars between Iranians and enemies such as the Greeks, Cultural exchange has happened very much, and this has happened in the works of art since then.



On the other hand, since the rule of Achaemenid was a huge government with large palaces, it was apparent that there were beautiful and colorful carpets in the court that probably had designs drawn from Iranian designs and designs borrowed from other civilizations, and Pazirik carpets were a small sample It was originally a cover that was thrown onto a horse. In the case of carpet weaving with local and native designs, it can be said that the designs of these carpets were very close to the designs of court carpets, but with more authenticity and simplicity. With an attitude in art courses After the Achaemenid, such as the Parthian and Sassanid, we see that the axis The main arts were the prince's person and the religion of that period (metropolis). In the remnants of this period, the king is gaining the ring of power from Ahura Mazda or hunting and overcoming his enemy.



Most likely, these images were also used on carpets weaving at that time, and perhaps even the centrality of the carpet (bergamot) was also formed as a symbol of the seal of that period, or the role of the fish in the cloud or the map of the altar Each of them refers in some way to the inscription of the seal. Historical histories attest to the fact that carpet weaving has flourished during the Sassanid era. In connection with this issue, the Chinese (sui) Sogi calendar related to the years 590 to 617 AD, shortly before the extinction of the Sassanid dynasty, was named as a carpet among Iranian goods. One of the most famous carpets of this period is the "Bahar Khosro" carpet, which is in the book of history Tabari (311 - 225 AH) also reads about the carpet as follows: "... an excellent Iranian carpet known as Bahar Khosro in the Caisson Palace, with a length of 450 steps and a width of 90 steps ... »


The sign of this carpet was due to its role as a gardens adorned with flowers and birds and streams of water. There are two views on this precious and expensive carpet. One is that when Khosro Parwiz ​​the king of Sassanid was defeated by the "Heraclius" of the Roman emperor, this carpet was dominated by the armies, and the other is that it is the famous "Baharestan" carpet that was defeated by Yazdgerd Third, the last Sassanid king of the Arab troops took it to the booty. In the book of the history of Balamy during the opening of Mordain, it is said about the carpet of Baharestan: "Ander Khashin was a carpet with a height of three hundred and tall, sixty feet wide, and read it as winter carpet. And Malikan Ajmar opened it up to the winter and sat down, so that the endangered world would not be green and blossom ... so Because of Bngrystndy, thought that Mbqlh is (patch of grass).

Or the plantation, and all its gems, are in the color of the whole world, and the blossoms ", according to the above, we notice the growth and flourishing of art, including the art of carpet making in this period. With the advent of Islam and the Arab invasion Iran is a new round of Iranian history. The Arabs were nomadic and deserted, and they were very simple and luxurious, and since they did not know the art of Sassanian luxury, they entered Iran to eliminate many of the artwork, including the "Baharestan" carpet that was located in the Madaen Palace, due to instability The art of carpet art for many years, which remained intact, but due to the rich and rich culture of Iranians rooted in history, the Arabs were also digested and matched in this culture. Of course, one should not ignore the role of Islam in the reproduction and revival of Iranian art. After the establishment of the Umayyad and Abbasid regimes, carpets with beautiful designs in the vaw court In this period, probably due to the forbiddenness of illustration by Islam, on the carpet, most of the motifs of nature, flowers and plants were inspired by inscriptions to the Kufi line, perhaps from the time that Arabsce slavic has come to be found in traditional Iranian art. And the upward trend in carpet design with a new and fixed form to the peak - the Safavid era - continued. Certainly, in all these periods, carpet weaving has been native in most parts of Iran, but due to continuous wars and the emergence of numerous local governments and the lack of a powerful central government, during these years, carpet weaving did not succeed as it should and maybe face. Since then, there has been no instance of the art of carpet weaving, but it is possible to observe the remnants of the remaining monuments and tiles and remains of daisies on the taste and power of the artists of this period of Iranian history, and certainly many of these designs and designs on the carpet Woven in this era. When it comes to h Governments in Iran's Safavid carpet as the country's national art revived. "Pitching before the Safavids, were probably similar carpets were produced in Anatolia. They have been made of wool with designs of all shapes and geometric shapes formed from the environment surrounding the rural life of the weavers. On the other hand, the Safavid carpets reflect the beautiful works of the court yards. These carpets consisted of wool, yarn, silver and metals used in their wrists. The very high quality of materials used in these carpets resulted in the formation of smaller knots and more knots, very complicated scrollbills with ausmais, bells and beautifully designed picture designs. "At that time, the carpet as its classical art The people of the world are aware of all the power of the Iranian people in the field of carpet making, which eventually became aesthetic and artistic. Certainly the reason for the ability of the Safavid artists to create works has been the greatness of the long history of Iranians from time immemorial, because as daylight is clear, carpets with an elemental classical style were woven from Iran hundreds of years before the Safavid, although, unfortunately, there are no traces of them left. . With care in the works of art remaining from the Safavid era and even before that during the Timurid period, which coincided with the school of Herat and the beginning of the Tabriz school, it follows that not only carpet art was bright in this period, but also Arts, such as tile, architecture, painting, illumination and book publishing, reached their peak. Since most carpet designers in this period were from painters and painters, they also had the art of designing carpets in the form of the same school of illumination and art The makeup of the cover book was cultivated on the carpet and reached its peak, and this owes itself to the effort. There are six great artists such as Behzad and his students, as well as the support of the bastard of the Iranian aristocratic kings in that period. "In the book of the Safavid era, Roger Sivery states: During the long reign of King Shah Tahmasb (second Safavid king of 1524-76) They formed to the end of perfection. He states that Shah Tahmasb was not only a supporter of art, but also often taught a young man to paint his paintings; many of the prominent artists of time were his intimate friends, and he himself was also skilled in painting; he was familiar with the design of carpets. It was said that there were also plans for carpet making. Considering that during this period cities such as Tabriz, Qazvin and Isfahan were called the capital of the Safavid government, the carpet weaving industry was developed in these cities and each of them owns There was a particular style that, until many years later, this style of difference remained. During this period, carpet weaving was set up in large and central workshops in the above cities and other cities, and exquisite and beautiful rugs such as Chelsea's carpets, hunting grounds, Sheikh Safi carpets and ... were decorated with museums of the world.

Due to the popularity of Iranian carpets in the western countries, carpet was established between the Safavid government and the European states, and for the first time custom carpets (Polonez) were woven in Kashan for the Polish court, which made Iran's carpets more accessible to them. The economy and art of this country. During this period, many designs and designs that were used by designer artists on the carpets of this period were used as a basis for the subsequent periods and until now, and the design of the carpet was recognized as an independent art.


After the golden period of the Safavid era, during the subsequent periods, during the reign of Afshar, Zandieh and Qajar, the carpet could not glorify the shining of the Safavid era. Due to instability and successive wars in this era, the art of carpet fell into decline and limited to local and rural production. In the early days of the Qajar rule, due to the entry of foreign companies in India and Iran, many Iranian noble arts were found. Due to the involvement of the owners of foreign companies in the production of carpets, the art of designing carpets also dimmed its originality and its former glory. Colors And the designs were introduced into the design of Iran's carpet, which due to the richness and deep authenticity of Iranian art, these designs also digested and absorbed Iranian design, and nothing of the art of designing Persian carpets was reduced. With the establishment of the Dar Al-Fonoun School and the school of artistic crafts by Amir Kabir and the professor Hossein Taherzadeh is trying to create a movement in traditional Iranian art, including the art of carpet design Which is somewhat praiseworthy, and many of the original Iranian designs have been revived and enhanced by educated artists at the School of Fine Arts, and even led the other carpet designers of this land.



At the end of Qajar rule, with the recognition of Iran's carpet as a valuable commodity and increasing its sales in foreign markets, foreign companies flocked to Iran. In various cities of Iran such as Arak (Sultanabad), Hamedan, Kerman and Tabriz, commercial companies began to Carpet production was widespread, and due to the boom of the carpet's foreign markets in the country, carpet art also saw a boom again, but not with the atmosphere of the past years. On the one hand, due to the warming of the carpet market, many domestic market players also And in many parts of Iran, even in areas where carpet weaving did not flourish, Ka Dungeons established carpet. The production of carpets in the tooth of European countries has taken on such a native origin of carpet scattering and disintegration, so that its effects remain until now. In recent years, with the establishment of carpet companies and then the involvement of other government agencies in the field of carpet , The art of carpet weaving was multiplied by the fact that it further added to the weakening of this art-industry. Carpet designers turned to different styles, and even with the introduction of car wraps, many strange designs, including types of pictures and photos on the carpet, were formed and improper use was made.


Where does the carpet go?
The carpet talk has been developing for a long time with the establishment of carpets in several different colleges in Iran and the establishment of annual international carpet exhibitions in our country. The production of carpets for many reasons, including its job creation, is one of the most important factors in the country's economic development, a topic that has led many professions, producing cotton and wool, carpet design, dyeing, textiles, carpet restoration, and domestic and foreign trade. It is one of the sources of income for a large number of our compatriots.



Of these, the profession - the art of carpet design is one of the most important factors in the production of a carpet, which itself has several parts and stages related; first, a pencil drawing on a plain paper is drawn up appropriately and proportionally, and this is essentially a skeleton of work. The rest of the steps are done on this basic plan. Then, depending on the style of carpet painting (Turkish - Persian), the color is placed on the plot or, like the areas around Tabriz, specify the colored sections with the number, and then the color of the desired item is placed on the front of the number in a strip of paper called Masurrah. they give.

After that, the turn is drawn to the pointing out, which at this stage translates the design into an understandable language for the weaver, and it has its own rules and methods. Now the map is ready for the texture. A carp designer should be familiar with the traditional design and with the basic design, and if he is painting the painting, it should be familiar with the traditional Persian colors, on the one hand, the designer should be familiar with the texture of a carpet, as well as design time. Avoid mistakes that might be posed by the knitter. Carpet design Like many other traditional words, it has been for many years been taught and taught by a teacher-student method, but it is a multiplier that aims at the science of this profession-art at universities. Teaching, including dyeing, restoration, texture ... But can Henry R. Over thousands of years in several academic semester and will be taught to a student.

I do not personally have any opposition to this move, but I would not be better off, along with such trainings, to educate scholars and experts who are fully acquainted with the schools and the past and present art of Iran Can revive the motifs and drawings that have been used for many years in our traditional painting, and the revelation of these paintings by the designers and artists of this land, as well as the revival of the golden compositions that lies in the past of Iranians, is to discourage traditional Iranian art and to prevent the uniformity of designs and motifs. Do they need to innovate in carpet designs Did the tableau or make carpets with the market menu? Why do not we be the bearer of so-called fashion, and the rest of our countries do not dazzle with us, even if this would prevent the cynicism of our countries, such as China, India and Pakistan, who have the power of our three thousand years of design and art There is no carpet design, so why not give someone a pail and they can only say that Iran's carpet is dead and can no longer be considered a source for it. However, the revival of Iranian art requires the full support of Iranian officials and officials, as it was during Safavid times It happened, we think of what we have, not what we do not have.

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